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Some Important Modern Pioneers: Baldwin, Habermas, Aurobindo, and Maslow
by Ken Wilber
What I would like to do in this section is introduce several modern pioneers in an integral approach, an approach that, in important ways attempts to be "all-quadrant, all-level." What all of these pioneers have in common is that they were fully cognizant of the important differentiations of modernity, and therefore they were increasingly aware of the ways in which science could supplement (not replace) religion, spirituality, and psychology. All of them, as we will see, used modern discoveries in the Big Three to elucidate the Great Nest.
Early modern pioneers of an integral approach abound, such as Goethe, Schelling, Hegel, Fechner, and James. The early pioneers increasingly had access to scientific data on evolution, and thus increasingly understood something about the Great Nest that the premodern pioneers usually did not: it shows development not just in individuals, but in the species; not just ontogenetically, but phylogenetically. In this century, although pioneers also abound-from Steiner to Whitehead to Gebser - I would like particularly to mention James Mark Baldwin, Jurgen Habermas, Sri Aurobindo, and Abraham Maslow.
- thanks to William at IOC for bringing this to our attention.