In The Eye of Spirit (1997) Ken Wilber wrote: "There are today at least a dozen major schools of feminism (liberal, socialist, spiritual, eco, womanist, radical, anarchist, lesbian, Marxist, cultural, constructive, power), and the only thing they all agree on is that females exist" (p. 190).
There is more to that, writes Joyce Nielsen, Professor of Sociology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. She is author of Sex and Gender in Society: Perspectives on Stratification (1990).
In this paper she uses Wilber's outline of Integral Feminism, as sketched in The Eye of Spirit (1997, pp. 186-202), to put the many feminist approaches into perspective:
Feminist Fusion or Fission? Ken Wilber Meets Feminist Theory
By Joyce McCarl Nielsen
In this paper I present contemporary feminist theories in an attempt to synthesize, integrate, fuse them, if you will, but not in the sense of reducing or collapsing them into a single theoretical or conceptual dynamic. Rather, following Ken Wilber's lead, I assume that all are partial truths even though (and perhaps especially when) they conflict and have contradictory assumptions. Each approach clarifies gendered phenomena in at least one of Wilber's four quadrants, outlined in Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution.
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